[KS] Name used for "god" in Korean language--resend in McCune-Reischauer

Dr. Edward D. Rockstein ed4linda at yahoo.com
Thu Jul 31 15:29:10 EDT 2008

In his latest post Dr. Ledyard noted, "In the course of the 2003 discussion, it was  
pointed out that the classical kasa poet Pak Illo (pen name Nogye,  1561-1642) used the form "Han[x]nim" (where [x] equals the now obsolete hangeul letter "arae a"), in a kasa. Unfortunately, Pak's poetic works were not printed until 1800. But that edition has proven very difficult to find; it is certainly not available in the U.S. His descendants put out what they termed a reprint of it in 1904, but that comes well after the otherwise first known appearance of hananim/haneunim in the early 1880s. It was the consensus back in 2003 that his usage of Hananim/Haneunim made more sense in his poetic context as a
personification of Heaven than as a reference to a transcendent  monotheistic deity. But this particular issue needs more serious study by scholars of Choseon dynasty poetry."
I would just add that there are two occurences in Pak's kasa, one in his T'aep'yo^ng-sa  and the other in Nogye-ga.  In the former the line is ch'o^n'unsunhwan u^l aopkeda 
ha'n*nim'a . In this case ha'n*nim'a is a vocative which Yi Sang-bo (whose Kaego Pak No-gye yo^n'gu was a key resource in my doctoral dissertation on No-gye's sijo) rendered in modern Korean as ha'nu*l u^i unsuga tol'au^m'u^l al ko^s'iomnida".  The latter occurence in Pak's Nogye-ga reads: "ilsaeng ae p'um'un stu^s u^l piomn*da ha'n*'nim'a" in which "stu^s u^l" was a Middle Korean rendering of "ttu^s u^l" and which Yi Sang-bo translated as "han p'yo^ngsaeng e p'um u^n ttu^s u^l piomnida. Ha'nu^nim iyo^."
Gari Ledyard is correct to point out that no known edition of the Nogye-jip prior to 1800 exists. There are four pre-modern editions of the text, three woodblock and one hand-written.  The woodblock editions all appear to have been made from one set of carved woodblocks, although there are a few minor differences with regard to a poem, Tosan-ga in them. The version I used from the Harvard-Yenching Library collection indicated that its blocks were carved in 1800, but that the edition was printed in 1904.  

Dr. Edward D. Rockstein 
Senior Language Instructor 
Language Learning Center (LLC) 
Office 410-859-5672
Fax 410-859-5737 
ed4linda at yahoo.com 

"I would rather be exposed to the inconveniences attending too much liberty than to those attending too small a degree of it.  "  Thomas Jefferson

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